Graham PA, Refsal KR, Nachreiner RF.
The causes of canine hypothyroidism are varied, but most cases result from irreversible acquired thyroid pathologic changes and only a small proportion arise from congenital anomalies of the thyroid gland or pituitary. Of primary thyroid failure, at least half is the result of immune-mediated thyroiditis. Recent research has focused on the genetics and immunology of canine thyroid disease, adding to what is known from experimental and human studies. Epidemiologic and diagnostic laboratory studies continue to provide information on contributing factors and raise questions for future research directions. Serum antibodies against thyroid components are common in thyroid pathologic conditions and dysfunction, and understanding their properties and frequency is important in the interpretation of thyroid diagnostic test results.