Clinical and Topographic Magnetic Resonance Characteristics of Suspected Brain Infarction in 40 Dogs

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Garosi L, McConnell JF, Platt SR, et al. 

Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 2006;20:311-321.

Medical records of 40 dogs presented for evaluation of acute-onset, nonprogressive, intracranial dysfunction by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnosis of brain infarction were reviewed. Location of the brain infarcts was: 11 of 38, telencephalic; 8 of 38, thalamic/midbrain; 18 of 38, cerebellar; and 3 of 38, multifocal. Telencephalic infarcts developed within the territory of the middle cerebral (4/11), rostral cerebral (2/11), and striate (5/11) arteries. Thalamic/midbrain infarcts developed within the territory of perforating arteries of the caudal portion of the thalamus and rostral portion of the brainstem (8/8). All cerebellar infarcts (18/38) were within the territory of the rostral cerebellar artery or one of its branches. All infarcts appeared nonhemorrhagic, with marked contrast enhancement observed in only 3 of 38 dogs, all of which were imaged more than 7 days after the onset of signs of neurologic dysfunction. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequences were available from 6 dogs, all imaged within 5 days of the onset of signs of neurologic dysfunction. Suspected infarcts were hyperintense on DWI sequences and were hypointense on the apparent diffusion coefficient map. Telencephalic infarcts caused abnormal mental status, contralateral postural reaction deficit, contralateral nasal hypalgesia, contralateral menace deficit, and ipsilateral circling. Thalamic/midbrain infarcts caused contralateral or ipsilateral postural reaction deficit, contralateral menace deficit, ipsilateral head tilt or turn, nystagmus, ventrolateral strabismus, and anisocoria. Cerebellar infarcts caused ipsilateral asymmetric cerebellar quality ataxia, head tilt, intermittent opisthotonus, nystagmus, and ipsilateral menace deficit with apparent normal vision.