Fritsche R, Dolf G, Schelling C, et al.
To test the hypothesis of a heritable base of ectopic ureters (EU) in Entlebucher Mountain Dogs (EMD) and to elucidate associated risk factors and mode of inheritance of the disease, 565 EMD were clinically investigated and population genetic analyses performed. Based on the location of the most caudal termination of the ureteral openings, 552 EMD were classified into three phenotype groups trigone, intravesically and extravesically ectopic based on results of abdominal sonography, urethra-cystoscopy and/or contrast-enhanced computed tomography. One-third (32.9%) of the phenotyped animals had normal terminations of both ureters in the bladder trigone, 47.3% had at least one intravesicular ectopic termination and 19.8% had at least one extravesicular ectopic termination. Multivariate mixed logistic regression revealed gender as a risk factor associated with EU as males were more often affected than females. Complex segregation analysis indicated a hereditary basis for EU in EMD and the involvement of a major gene in the occurrence of the extravesicular EU phenotype.