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Fungal Infections of the Central Nervous System in the Dog and Cat

Lavely J. and Lipsitz D.

Clinical techniques in small animal practice, 2005. 20(4): p.212-9.

Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS) in dogs and cats are uncommon. The purpose of this paper is to review the clinical signs, diagnostic tests, and therapeutic options of fungal infections of the CNS in the dog and cat. Clinical signs are dependent on lesion location and are often multifocal. Extraneural involvement is common. Antemortem diagnosis can be difficult and is definitively made via cytology, biopsy, or culture of an affected organ or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Magnetic resonance imaging can support a diagnosis and may assist in therapeutic decisions. Fungal serology can support a diagnosis when direct visualization of the organism is not possible. Long-term azole maintenance therapy is suggested to enhance survival and prevent relapse. Serial cerebrospinal fluid evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging may identify early relapse.