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Ultrasonographic Appearance of the Craniocervical Junction in Normal Brachycephalic Dogs and Dogs with Caudal Occipital (Chiari-Like) Malformation

Martin J. Schmidt A.W., Sebastian Jawinski, Tanja Golla, Martin Kramer,

Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound, 2008. 49(5): p.472-476.

Ultrasonographic evaluation of the spine, especially of the spinal cord, has been rarely reported in dogs. The atlanto-occipital junction provides a small acoustic window through which examination of the craniocervical transition can be performed. Normal sonographic findings of this region in 10 normal brachycephalic dogs are presented and compared with sonographic findings from 25 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with the caudal occipital malformation syndrome. Sonographic findings were compared with magnetic resonance imaging findings to determine the extent of cerebellar herniation and syringohydromyelia. Cerebellar displacement into the foramen magnum was clearly identified sonographically; however, syringohydromyelia was not discernable due to bone overlay.