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Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Femoral Head of Normal Dogs and Dogs with Avascular Necrosis

Rachel A. Bowlus L.J.A., David S. Biller, James J. Hoskinson, Keiichi Kuroki, Derek A. Mosier,

Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound, 2008. 49(1): p.7-12.

The purpose of this study was to describe the appearance of the femoral head of normal, young, small breed dogs, and dogs with avascular necrosis using low-field (0.3 T) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Images of the femoral heads were obtained in the dorsal plane, and included T1-weighted spin-echo, T2-weighted fast spin-echo, fast spin echo-inversion recovery, and fluid attenuated inversion recovery pulse sequences. MR imaging features of the asymptomatic femoral heads and necks included uniform high signal intensity compared with muscle on T1- and T2-weighted images. There was either uniform enhancement or no enhancement on postcontrast T1-weighted images. The MR imaging findings of dogs affected with avascular necrosis differed from those of asymptomatic dogs. Typically, the affected dogs had inhomogeneous intermediate to low-signal intensity within the femoral head and neck compared with muscle on T1-weighted images, inhomogeneous enhancement of the femoral head and/or neck on postcontrast T1-weighted images, and inhomogeneous low- to high- signal intensity within the femoral head and neck on T2-weighted images.