Anatomical Study of Cranial Nerve Emergence and Skull Foramina in the Dog Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography
Couturier L., Degueurce C., Ruel Y., et al.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound, 2005. 46(5): p.375-83.
Twenty-two magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain studies of different breeds of dogs were reviewed to assess the anatomy of cranial nerve (CN) origins and associated skull foramina. These included five anatomic studies of normal brains using 2-mm-thick slices and 17 studies using conventional clinical protocols with 3- or 4-mm slices on both normal and abnormal brains. Images were obtained in transverse, sagittal, and dorsal planes to allow a thorough comparison between studies. CNs II, III, V (and its divisions), and VIII were observed consistently on conventional studies. On the thin-slice studies, the origins and proximal portions of CNN IV, VII, and the group of IX, X, and XI could be seen. The origins of CNN VI and XII were not observed with certainty. In parallel, a computed tomography study of an isolated skull was performed with a thin copper wire within each of the skull foramina to determine precisely each CN exit and to facilitate recognition of the course of CNs when exiting the skull on MRI images.