Image Fusion of Computed Tomographic and Magnetic Resonance Images for the Development of a Three-Dimensional Musculoskeletal Model of the Equine Forelimb
Laura Zarucco, Erik R. Wisner, Michael D. Swanstrom, et al.
Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound, 2006. 47(6): p.553-562.
Biomechanical models that compute the lengths and forces of muscle2013tendon units are broadly applicable to the study of factors that promote injury and the planning and effects of orthopedic surgical procedures in equine athletes. A three-dimensional (3D) generic musculoskeletal model of the equine forelimb comprised of bony segment, muscle2013tendon, and ligament information, was developed based on high-resolution computed tomographic (CT) and T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images from an isolated forelimb of a Thoroughbred racehorse. Image fusion was achieved through coregistration of CT and MR images with an image analysis program (Analyze2122) by adjustment of the relative position and orientation of fiducial markers visible in both modalities until the mutual information between the images was maximized. 3D surfaces of the bones and origin/insertion sites, centroid paths and volumes of the muscle2013tendon and ligamentous structures were obtained from the multimodal (CT/MR) images using semiautomated and manual segmentation combined with sagittal and transverse color-cryosection anatomic images obtained from three other cadaveric equine forelimbs. Once bony and soft-tissue structures were reconstructed in the same coordinate system, data were imported to a software package for interactive musculoskeletal modeling (SIMMÆ). The combination of integrated CT and MR acquisitions and anatomical images provided an accurate and efficient means of generating a 3D model of the musculoskeletal structures of an average-sized equine adult horse.