Computed Tomographic Determination of Tibial Torsion in the Dog<
Rhonda Aper, Michael P. Kowaleski, Detlef Apelt, et al.
Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound, 2005. 46(3): p.187-191.
The goal of this study was to develop a method for computed tomographic (CT) measurement of tibial torsion, and to compare this technique with direct anatomic measurement of tibial torsion in cadaveric canine tibiae. Paired hind limbs of 10 cadaveric dogs were mounted on a custom-designed limb holding apparatus. One-millimeter thick, contiguous, transverse CT slices were obtained from the distal femur to the proximal tibia and 2†mm CT slices were obtained from the distal tibia to the proximal tarsus. The tibiae were freed of soft tissues and digital photographic images of the proximal and distal articular surfaces were obtained with the camera lens aligned perpendicular to the long axis of the tibia. Multiple proximal and distal tibial axes were identified on the images; two proximal and two distal axes were found to be repeatable in all specimens in both the direct and CT methods. The torsion angle was calculated by determining the difference between the axis angles for each pair of proximal and distal axes. There was no significant difference in torsion angle identified between the direct photographic and CT method for any pair of proximal and distal axes. CT determination of tibial torsion is a rapid and accurate method, and warrants investigation in clinical patients.