Computed Tomographic Anatomy of the Canine Cervical Vertebral Venous System
Gomez M., Freeman L., Jones J., et al.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound, 2004. 45(1): p.29-37.
Computed tomographic (CT) venography of the cervical vertebral canal was performed in six, clinically normal, adult mixed-breed dogs from 14 to 23 kg. After dogs were euthanized and saline perfused, a gelatin and iothalamate mixture was injected into the right external jugular vein. Contiguous, 4-mm-thick CT images were obtained with dogs in sternal recumbency. Dogs were kept in the same position as for the CT scan and frozen to approximately -8 degrees C. All post-contrast CT images were analyzed using similar bone window and level settings. Additional multiplanar reformatted dorsal images were obtained in all dogs. The frozen cadavers were sectioned through the cervical region extending from the occiput to T1 at approximately 8-mm intervals. The frozen sections were then compared with the CT images. The CT appearance of the normal cervical vertebral venous system was described and illustrated. Components such as the internal vertebral venous plexus, interarcuate veins, intervertebral veins, and vertebral veins were clearly identified on the CT images.