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Prognostic Significance of Tumor Histology and Computed Tomographic Staging for Radiation Treatment Response of Canine Nasal Tumors

William M. Adams M.M.K., Donald E. Thrall, Julia M. Klauer, Lisa J. Forrest, Tracy A. La Due, Thomas C. Havighurst,

Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound, 2009. 50(3): p.330-335.

Prognostic significance of tumor histology and four computed tomography (CT) staging methods was tested retrospectively in dogs from three treatment centers that underwent intent-to-cure-radiotherapy for intranasal neoplasia. Disease-free and overall survival times were available for 94 dogs. A grouping of anaplastic, squamous cell, and undifferentiated carcinomas had a significantly shorter median disease-free survival (4.4 mo) than a grouping of all sarcomas (10.6 months). Disease-free survivals were not significantly different, when all carcinomas were compared with all sarcomas. The published original and modified WHO staging methods did not significantly relate to either survival endpoint. A modified human maxillary tumor staging system previously applied to canine nasal tumors was prognostically significant for both survival endpoints; a further modified version of that CT-based staging system resulted in improved significance for both survival endpoints. Dogs with unilateral intranasal involvement without bone destruction beyond the turbinates on CT, had longest median survival (23.4 months); CT evidence of cribriform plate involvement was associated with shortest median survival (6.7 months). Combining CT and histology statistically improved prognostic significance for both survival endpoints over the proposed CT staging method alone. Significance was lost when CT stages were collapsed to &lt;four categories or histopathology groupings were collapsed to < three categories.