Vestibular, Vaginal, and Urethral Relations in Spayed Dogs with and without Lower Urinary Tract Signs
Wang K.Y., Samii V.F., Chew D.J., et al.
J Vet Intern Med, 2006. 20(5): p.1065-73.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the urogenital anatomy in female spayed dogs with and without signs of lower urinary tract disease by using conventional vaginourethrography, computed tomography (CT) vaginourethrography, and uroendoscopy. Nineteen dogs with lower urinary tract disease and 12 normal dogs were evaluated prospectively. Measurements made included vaginal length, vaginal height, vaginal width, vestibule length, vestibule height, vestibule width, vestibulovaginal ratios, cingulum height, cingulum width, cingulum area, urethral length, urethral height, urethral width, angle of urethra to vestibule, and angle of vaginal to vestibule. Group comparisons were made between dogs with and without lower urinary tract disease. Comparisons between conventional vaginourethrography and CT vaginourethrography were made when the same anatomical measurement was made by the 2 imaging modalities. There was no significant difference in all of the measurements (P > .01), including vestibulovaginal ratios and cingulum areas, between dogs with and without lower urinary tract disease. There was a larger proportion of dogs with a vestibulovaginal ratio <0.33 in normal dogs (8 of 12) compared with the clinical dogs (8 of 16). A significant difference between vestibulovaginal ratios or cingulum areas between dogs with and without lower urinary tract disease could not be identified. This suggests that a vestibulovaginal ratio of <0.33 may only be an incidental finding and the term "vestibulovaginal stenosis" may need to be redefined.