Evaluation of the Lower Respiratory Tract in Psittacines Using Radiology and Computed Tomography
Krautwald-Junghanns M.-E., Schumacher F. and Tellhelm B.
Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound, 1993. 34(6): p.382-390.
In the last 21/2 years, 288 grey parrot and amazon species with symptoms of respiratory disease clinically were presented to the clinic for avian medicine at the Justus-Liebig-University in Giessen. Ventro-dorsal and latero-lateral radiographs were taken from all birds; radiologic signs of lower respiratory tract disease were noted. Radiographs were normal in 55 of the birds. The results of the radiographic examination for the remaining 233 birds were compared with the necropsy results of terminally ill parrots, with the results of laboratory examinations/endoscopy/and/or with an examination by computed tomography. Thoracic radiographs were evaluated for occurring radiological abnormalities pertaining to the respiratory tract. The frequency of these lesions and their association with a disease process and/or specific etiology was noted.