Helical Computed Tomographic Angiography of the Normal Canine Pancreas
Ana V. C¡Ceres, Allison L. Zwingenberger, Erin Hardam, et al.
Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound, 2006. 47(3): p.270-278.
Helical abdominal computed tomography (CT) was performed in nine normal beagle-mix dogs. Following cephalic vein injection of ionic iodinated contrast medium via power injector (rate 5 ml/s) dual-phase CT was performed in all dogs. A delayed scan was performed in five dogs between 5 and 13 min after the contrast medium injection. The median time of appearance of contrast medium in the aorta and gastroduodenal artery was 6.3 and 7 s, post start injection and 12 and 12.2 s in the gastroduodenal and portal vein, resulting in a purely arterial pancreatic time window of 5-6 s. Pancreatic veins and parenchyma remained enhanced until the end of the dynamic scan (40 s). The pancreatic parenchyma showed heterogeneous arterial and homogenous venous contrast enhancement which was slightly hypoattenuating compared to the liver. Delayed scans provided best delineation of the pancreas from the liver. The common bile duct could be identified ventral and to the right of the portal vein joining the dorsomedial aspect of proximal duodenum. Because of the very short time window and variable onset of pure arterial enhancement careful planning of dual-phase studies with previous dynamic CT is recommended. Dual-phase CT angiography enables assessment of the arterial supply, parenchymal perfusion and venous drainage of the canine pancreas.