Immunity and the Endocrine System
Greco D.S. and Harpold L.M.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract, 1994. 24(4): p.765-82.
In conclusion, interaction between the immune and endocrine systems is highly complex. Generally, abnormalities of T suppressor cells, a result of HLA antigen genetic abnormalities, result in autoimmunity that causes endocrine gland destruction and hormone deficiency, as seen in lymphocytic thyroiditis of dogs, type I DM, hypoparathyroidism, hypoadrenocorticism, and APS. On the other hand, endocrine deficiency (hypothyroidism, DM) or excess (hyperadrenocorticism) states may cause abnormalities of cell-mediated and antibody-associated immunity, leading to susceptibility to a variety of viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. It is hoped that this article sheds some light on the complex and highly integrated endocrine-immune interactions.